8 August 2019

General

Heart Rhythm Disturbances

“The heart is reduced to 150 times per minute( on average – about 80 times).In the phase of diastole the heart rests, and in the phase of systole – it contracts, providing oxygen delivery to all organs of the body. For the full functioning of the heart, it is necessary to contract at regular intervals.

Heart rhythm disorder – a breakdown in the sequence, frequency and rhythm of the heart beat, entails various diseases.

The causes of heart rhythm disturbances are not fully investigated. It is generally accepted that there are two main reasons – organic and functional disorders.

We should not forget about such heart rhythm disturbances as arrhythmia. Depending on the location of these disorders, all arrhythmias are divided into ventricular and supraventricular( atrial).It is possible to detect arrhythmia alone, enough to count and find the pulse.

In addition, there are two more states of cardiac muscle activity:

sinus tachycardia( an increase in the chassis over 100 beats per minu

te); sinus bradycardia( lowering the hhs less than 60 beats per minute).

Disturbance of rhythm and conduction of the heart – fairly common complications of heart disease. If a patient has any cardiac arrhythmias, it is necessary to undergo a full medical examination to determine all the causes that caused the arrhythmia.

In a medical environment, a classification of heart rhythm disorders is adopted:

atrial fibrillation( complete rhythm failure); extrasystoles( heart rhythm failures); paroxysmal tachycardia( heart rate more than 150 beats per minute); flutter and atrial fibrillation; flutter and ventricular fibrillation; malfunctions in impulse conduction.

Symptoms of heart rhythm disorder usually occur with minimal manifestations, and sometimes the patient clearly feels their manifestation.

Such symptoms include:

feeling of missed contractions; feeling as if the heart “”pops out of the chest””; persistent weakness and fatigue; syncope; darkening in the eyes; feeling of lack of air for breathing; discomfort in the chest.
However, many of these symptoms can be associated with stress, anxiety. A person can experience these symptoms, but not have any heart disease.

Paroxysmal heart rhythm disturbances have many complex and, often, fatal complications:

troboembolism; arrhythmogenic shock; pulmonary edema.
To types of emergency care, in the event of arrhythmia, it is possible to attribute:

urgent relief of paroxysms of cardiac disorders; stabilization of the received effect; prevention of possible relapses.

Extrasystoles – a violation of the rhythm of the heart, which is characterized by the appearance of premature heart contractions( extrasystoles). More than three consecutive extrasystoles are a short-term attack of paroxysmal tachycardia. This rhythm disturbance arises from such diseases:

malfunctions of the nervous activity in the work of the heart muscle; heart disease; poisoning with toxic poisons; of nervous stress; diseases of internal organs( stomach, kidney, liver); for brain tumors; myocarditis; heart disease; ischemic disease; myocardial dystrophy.

When alcohol abuse begins to increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. In medical practice, this is called a heart rhythm disorder syndrome or a festive heart syndrome. Alcohol abuse can lead to cardiomyopathy, which is the basis for the development of arrhythmia.

Heart rhythm disturbances are a syndrome formed by cardiac pathology and various extracardiac cases. Sometimes the syndrome may have unidentified causes( idiopathic rhythm disorder of the heart).

If a patient is diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias, a full medical examination should be performed urgently to determine the cause of arrhythmia. Here, the main method for detecting pathologies of the heart rhythm was an electrocardiogram. ECG disturbances of the rhythm of the heart very helps to establish the appearance of arrhythmia.

Heart rhythm disturbances during pregnancy can be observed in both the mother and the child, which is a great medical problem:

arrhythmias pose an immediate threat to the life of the mother and the fetus; the number of arrhythmias during pregnancy increases, which is explained by physiological changes in the mother’s body; , these changes affect the pharmacological parameters of drugs, their effectiveness and concentration in the blood; the decision on a choice of methods of treatment of the pregnant woman is accepted by doctors of various specialties( obstetricians, pediatricians, cardiologists).

Heart rhythm disorder in children is a common phenomenon: the younger a child, the higher his heart rate. For example, a newborn has an average of 140, five at 100, and only at the age of 15-18 is set at the adult level – 80 beats per minute.

The cause of arrhythmia of a newborn can become:

heart disease; inflammatory diseases( endocarditis, myocarditis); poisoning; mitral valve prolapse; vegetative-vascular dystonia; tumors of the heart muscle; endocrine pathology and many others.

Under normal conditions, automatic heart rate is provided by the pacemaker( sinus-atrial plexus).Conduction is provided by a cardiac system consisting of muscle beams and fibers. Violation of the rhythm of the heart of the driver or any other part of the heart system leads to the formation of arrhythmia.

Diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias begins by identifying the cause that caused these disorders. The cause may be a kidney, liver or any other organ of the human body, and it is from it that heart disease can begin. Today, the diagnosis is comprehensive and comprehensive. There was an opportunity to predict the occurrence of strokes and heart attacks, other cardiovascular disorders.

Treatment of heart rhythm disturbances is performed in accordance with indications based on hemodynamic disorders or arrhythmia intolerance. In cases that are not hazardous to health, no special treatment is required. It is enough to conduct rational psychotherapy. In more severe cases, first of all, the treatment of the disease that caused heart rhythm disturbances is performed.”

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